Results in the destruction of the alveolar walls. Many smokers have both bronchitis and emphysema, which are often referred to as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Chronic inflammation of the bronchioles, usually caused by cigarette smoke or air pollution, probably initiates emphysema.
Is an inflammation of the bronchi caused by irritants, such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or infections. The inflammation results in swelling of the mucous membrane lining the bronchi, increased mucus production an decreased movement mucus by cilia. Consequently, the diameter of the bronchi is decreased, and ventilation is impaired. Bronchitis can progress to emphysema.
Asthma is a disease characterized by increased constriction of the trachea and bronchi in response to various stimuli, resulting in a narrowing of the air passageways and decreased ventilation efficiency. Symptoms include wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath. In contrast to many other respiratory disorders, however the symptoms of asthma typically reverse either spontaneously or wit therapy.
- Cystic Fibrosis
Cystic Fibrosis is an inherited disease that affects the secretory cells lining the lungs, pancreas, sweet glands and salivary glands. The defect produces an abnormal chloride transport protein that doesn’t reach the cell surface or doesn’t function normally if it does reach the cell surface.the result is decreased chloride ion secretion out of the cells and increased sodium ion movement into cells.
- Pulmonary Fibrosis
Pulmonary Fibrosis is the replacement of lung tissue with fibrous connective tissue, thereby making the lungs less elastic and breathing more difficult. Exposure to asbestos, silica (silicosis) or coal dust is the most common cause.
- Bronchiogenic Cancer
Bronchiogenic Cancer arises from the epithelium of the respiratory tract. Cancers arising from tissues other than respiratory epithelium are not called lung cancer, even though they occur in the lungs. Lungs cancer is the most common cause of cancer death inmales and females in US almost all cases occur in smokers. Because the rich lymph and blood supply in the lungs, cancer in the lung can readily spread to other parts of the lung or body. In addition, the disease is often advanced before symptoms become severe enough for the victim to seek medical aid. Typical symptoms include coughing, sputum production and blockage of the airways. Treatments include removal of part or all of the lung, chemotherapy and radiation.
Pneumonia is a general term that refers to many infections of the lung. Most pneumonias are caused by bacteria, but some result from viral, fungal or protozoan infections. Symptoms include fever, difficulty in breathing, and chest pain. Inflammation of the lung results in the accumulation of fluid within alveoli (pulmonary edema) and poor inflation of the lungs with air.
Tuberculosis is caused by a tuberculosis bacterium (Mycobacterium tuberculosis). In the lung, the bacteria form the lesions called tubercles. The small lumps contain degenerating macrophages and tuberculosis bacteria. An immune reaction is directed against the tubercles, which causes the formation of larger lesions and inflammation. The tubercles can rupture and release bacteria that infect other parts of the lungs or body. Recently, a strain of the tuberculosis bacteria has developed that is resistant to treatment and this strain is increasing concern that tuberculosis will again become a widespread infectious disease.
- Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Hyaline Membrane Disease)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Hyaline Membrane Disease) is common especially for infants with a gestation ago of less than 7 months. This occurs because surfactant is not produced in adequate quantities until approximately 7 months of development. Thereafter, the amount produce increases as the fetus matures. Cortisol can be given to pregnant women who are likely to deliver prematurely, because it crosses the placenta into the fetus an stimulates surfactant synthesis.
10. Strep Throat
Strep Throat is caused by a streptococcal bacteria (Streptococcus pyogenes) and is characterized by inflammation of the pharynx and by fever. Frequently, inflammation of the tonsils and middle ear is involved. With out of throat analysis, the infection cannot be distinguished from viral causes of pharyngeal inflammation. Current techniques allow rapid diagnosis within minutes to hours and antibiotics are an are an effective treatment.
Seeley, Rod R. et al. 2003. Anatomy and Physiology Sixth Edition. United States: McGraw-Hill