Drosophila melanogaster is a species of Diptera in family Drosophilidae. The species is known generally as the common fruit fly. Drosophila melanogaster has 3 mm in length. Morphology of fruit fly, such as adult is yellow-brown in colour with significant black rings along the length of the abdomen, with oval wings and has rust-red eyes.
The developmental period for Drosophila melanogaster varies with temperature, as with many ectothermic species. The shortest development time (egg to adult), 7 days, is achieved at 28 °C (82 °F). Females lay some 400 eggs (embryos), about five at a time, into rotting fruit or other suitable material such as decaying mushrooms and sap fluxes. The metamorphosis for Drosophila Melanogaster is the same in various insects, including bees and beetles. There are egg, larvae, pupae and flying adult.
II. MATERIAL AND METHOD
In this experiment, medium that we used is too simple it is jack fruit.
In this experiment, tools we have used are:
Steps to made medium and it position in stopples are:
- Separated jack fruit from it seed,
- Put on the jack fruit in deep of stopples and near with the stopples wall,
Permit the stopples mouth opened to catch Drosophila melanogaster
Figure. Material and medium of life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster
There are some methods to catch Drosophila melanogaster population:
- Position stopples with medium in fresh place like in under tree,
- Keep stopples from ants population,
- Waiting four one day,
- If fruit flies were came in stopples, closed the stopples with plastic and tied by rubber quickly,
- We menusuk plastic with needle to make air ventilation.
- Start the experiment from the first day
Table of life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster
Σ Young Drosophila melanogaster
|1||Tuesday, Dec. 18th 2012||06.00 am||± 270||–||–||–||0,5 mm|
|Tuesday, Dec. 18th 2012||14.00 am||± 20||± 250||–||–||1 mm|
|2||Wednesday, Dec.19th 2012||06.00 am||± 5||± 265||–||–||3 mm|
|3||Thursday, Dec. 20th 2012||06.00 am||–||± 270||–||–||4 mm|
|4||Friday, Dec. 21th 2012||06.00 am||–||± 50||± 200||–||2,5 mm|
|5||Saturday, Dec. 22th 2012||06.00 am||–||± 25||± 210||–||2 mm|
|6||Sunday, Dec. 23th 2012||06.00 am||–||–||± 215||–||2 mm|
|7||Monday, Dec. 24th 2012||06.00 am||–||–||± 100||± 60||3 mm|
First day at 06.00 am in Tuesday, December 18th 2012. There are ± 270 eggs of Drosophila melanogaster in stopples. They are oval shape, white color and have 0,5 mm in size. They are smallest, so we need magnifying glass to see it. Female Drosophila melanogaster lays its eggs in surround stopples wall. This phase called embryonic period. From mating to lays eggs, Drosophila melanogaster need 24 hours to did it. After we knew adult Drosophila melanogaster produced eggs, we open the cover of stopples and take away them.
At 14.00 pm in the same date, they are ± 250 larvae and ± 20 eggs in stopples. It is mean that eggs have development become larvae. This phase star for postembryonic period. In this phase, all eggs doesn’t hatch because we still found some eggs in surround of stopples wall. The larva of Drosophila melanogaster is 1 mm in length, tapering shape and white color. Beside that, it also moved like worm from stopples wall to fruit or medium in stopples base. Larvae in this phase called 1st instar larva.
Figure. 1st instar larva of Drosophila melanogaster
Second day at 06.00 am in Wednesday, December 19th 2012. There are ± 265 larvae and ± 5 eggs of Drosophila melanogaster. Larva in this phase called 2nd instar larva. It need 24 hours to developed become 2nd instar larva. It has 3 mm in length, still tapering shape and white color and body with segments. Beside that, it has mouth with black color for eat. Larva in this phase moved and eat fasten than 1st instar larva.
Figure. 2th instar larva of Drosophila melanogaster
Third day at 06.00 am in Thursday, December 20th 2012. There are ± 270 larvae and no eggs in stopples. Larva in this phase called 3rd larva instar larva. It has 4 mm in length, still blue color and tapering shape. Segmentation of its body more clear and moved and eat fasten then 2nd instar larva. It also need 24 hours to change into 3rd instar larva. Larva in this phase has hook in is mouth for eating quickly. But larva in this phase moved up from medium to the dry place in stopples for menempel until change into pre-pupa phase. It means instar phase was finished.
Figure. 3rd instar larva of Drosophila melanogaster
Fourth day at 06.00 am in Friday, December 21th 2012. There are ± 200 pupae and ± 50 larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. Pupa has brightly brown colour and 2,5 mm in length. Its body segments most clear and oval shape. Its menempel on stopples wall. It means from this phase pupa was inactive moved. But not all pupae could menempel on stopples wall. Only 50 pupae which menempel on stopples wall because other pupae tertahan in jack fruit fiber (medium).
Figure. Pupa of Drosophila melanogaster
Figure. Pupa of Drosophila melanogaster that trapped in medium
Fifth day at 06.00 am in Saturday, December 22th 2012. There are ± 210 pupae and ± 25 larva (3th instar larva) of Drosophila melanogaster. Pupa has 2 mm more short than before and oval shape. It also has dark brown color, segmentation of body more clear than first pupa, still menempel on stopples wall.
Figure. Pupa of Drosophila melanogaster in second day of pupa phase
Sixth day at 06.00 am in Sunday, Decemeber 23th 2012. There are ± 215 pupae of Drosophila melanogaster. We didn’t found larvae in stopples. All of them were developed into pupa. Totally, we found 60 pupae in stopples wall because other pupae still stay in medium.
Seventh day at 06.00 am in Monday, December 24th 2012. All of pupae which menempel in stopples wall have developed into young Drosophila melanogaster but they couldn’t fly. They only moved in stopples. Pupae which stay in medium couldn’t changed into young fruit fly. In some references said that after Drosophila melanogaster come out from its pupa, it just need 3-4 hours to adapted its wings before fly.
At 09.00 am young Drosophila melanogaster have flied. A adult fruit fly has 3 mm in length. Its body consist of chepalo (head), thorax and abdomen, has tranparancy wings and compound eyes with red color. In other references said that adult Drosophila melanogaster need ± 12 hours after could fly become ready to produce eggs.
Life cycle of fruit fly: